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CharacteristicsEdit

ScalationThe monocled cobra has an O-shaped, or monocellate hood pattern, unlike that of the Indian Cobra. Coloration in young is more constant. The dorsal surface may be yellow, brown, gray, or blackish and with or without ragged or clearly defined cross bands. They are olivaceous or brownish to black above with or without a yellow or orange-coloured O-shaped mark upon the hood. They have a black spot on the lower surface of the hood on either side, and one or two black cross-bars on the belly behind it. The rest of the belly is usually of the same colour as the back, but paler. As age advances, they become paler, and when adult are brownish or

CobraLM

An Albino Cobra

olivaceous. The elongated nuchal ribs enable cobras to expand the anterior of the neck into a “hood”. A pair of fixed anterior fangs is present. The largest fang recorded measured 6.78 mm (0.678 cm). Fangs are moderately adapted for spitting.Adult monocled cobras reach a length of 1.35 to 1.5 metres (4.4 to 4.9 ft) with a tail length of 23 cm (9.1 in). Many larger specimens have been recorded, but they are rare. Adults can reach a maximum of 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) in length.

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They have 25 to 31 scales on the neck, 19 to 21, usually 21, on the body, and 17 or 15 on the front of the vent. They have 164 to 197 ventral scales and 43 to 58 Subducal Scales

Monocled cobras tend to have more than one cuneate scale on each side. The shape of the frontal scale is short and square. Ventrals in males range from 170 to 192, in females from 178 to 197. Subcaudals in males range from 48 to 61, in females from 46 to 59.

[edit]Distribution and habitatEdit

Monocled cobras are distributed from India in the west through to China, Vietnam and Cambodia, also occurs in the Malay Peninsula and is native to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos, Nepal, andThailand.

Monocled cobras can adapt to a range of habitats, from natural to anthropogenically impacted environments. They prefer habitats associated with water, such as paddy fields, swamps, and mangroves, but can also be found in grasslands, shrublands, and forests. It also occurs in agricultural land and human settlements, including cities. They can be found up to elevations of 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above sea level.[1]

[edit]Ecology and behaviourEdit

This is a terrestrial and nocturnal species, but are also found basking during daytime.[2] Often found in tree holes and areas where rodents are plentiful. It tends to head for cover if disturbed. Monocled cobras are spitting.[5] However, when threatened, they will raise the anterior portions of their bodies, spread their hood, usually hiss loudly, and strike in an attempt to bite and defend themselves.[4] In rice-growing areas they live in rodent burrows in the dykes between the fields and have become semi-aquatic in some areas. Juveniles take mostly amphibians. Adults eat small mammals, frogs, toads, and occasionally snakes and fish.[2]

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Taxonomic historyEdit

In 1831, Lesson first described the monocled cobra as a beautiful snake that is well distinct from the Spectacled Cobra, with 188 ventral scales and 53 pairs of caudal scales.[8]

Since then, several monocled cobras were described under different scientific names:

Several varieties of monocled cobras were described under the binomial Naja tripudians between 1895 and 1913.

  • Naja tripudians var. scopinucha 1895
  • Naja tripudians var. unicolor 1876
  • Naja tripudians var. viridis 1913
  • Naja tripudians var. sagittifera 1913

In 1940, Malcolm Arthur Smith classified the monocled cobra as a subspecies of the spectacled cobra under the trinomial Naja naja kaouthia.[11]

  • Naja kaouthia kaouthia – Deraniyagala, 1960

[edit]VenomEdit

The median lethal dose is 0.28-0.33 mg/gram of mouse body weight.[4] The major toxic components in cobra venoms are postsynaptic neurotoxins, which block the nerve transmission by binding specifically to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, leading to flaccid paralysis and even death by respiratory failure. The major α-neurotoxin in Naja kaouthia venom is a long neurotoxin, α-cobratoxin; the minor α-neurotoxin is different from cobrotoxin in one residue.[12] The neurotoxins of this particular species are weak.[13] The venom of this species also contains myotoxins and cardiotoxins.[14][15]

In case of intravenous injection the LD50 tested in mice is 0.373 mg/kg, and 0.225 mg/kg in case of intraperitoneal injection.[16] The average venom yield per bite is approximately 263 mg (dry weight).[17]

The monocled cobra causes the highest fatality due to snake venom poisoning in Thailand.[18] Envenomation usually presents predominately with extensive local necrosis and systemic manifestations to a lesser degree. Drowsiness, neurological and neuromuscular symptoms will usually manifest earliest; hypotension, flushing of the face, warm skin, and pain around bite site typically manifest within one to four hours following the bite; paralysis, ventilatory failure or death could ensue rapidly, possibly as early as 60 minutes in very severe cases of envenomation. However, the presence of fang marks does not always imply that envenomation actually occurred.[19]

In Myanmar (Burma), Maung TM, a 20-year old male was admitted to Insein hospital (near Yangon), within one hour of being bitten by a monocled cobra on the inner side of thigh. In fact he was bitten while squatting to urinate in the field. On admission there was a black patch and gross swelling at the site of the bite. Polyvalent serum, containing anti-viper and anti-cobra, was given intravenously on admission. On the next day the eye lids drooped and he developed signs of respiratory paralysis which demanded immediate tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation. He was again given antivenom with atropine andprostigmine with good response. The drugs were repeated as their actions had been only short lasting. The development of respiratory paralysis after an apparent recovery may indicate that there was a depot of venom at the site of bite from which it was absorbed slowly. This assumption may call for local infiltration. Locally there was extensive necrosis and ulceration requiring skin grafting at a later date.[20]

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